La Malinche, Malinalli, Malintzin y dona Marina; 1. (1505- ) 2. Father was cacique. He was killed, 3. Her mother got married so, her mother gift as a slave La Malinche, Malinalli, Malintzin y dona Marina; esos nombres refieren a la mujer que nacio c. 1505 en una familia azteca, de cuna noble. La fecha y localizacion exactas de su nacimiento no son ciertas por la falta de no tener archivos exactos. Tampoco son ciertas las circunstancias de su vida antes de llegar los espanoles. La Malinche, Malinalli Malintzin and Dona Marina, these names refer to the woman who was born c.
Aztec 1505 in a family of noble birth. The date and exact location of his birth are not certain about the lack of not having accurate records. Neither are true circumstances of his life before the Spanish arrived. Segun Castillo, el autor del famoso libro, La verdadera historia de la conquista de Mexico, su padre era un cacique, pero fallecio cuando la nina era joven. Luego, su madre se caso con otro cacique y dio a luz a un nino. Para que el varon obtuviera el puesto de poder en la familia, su madre dijo que Malinalli habia muerto y la
Eventualmente, Malinalli se encontro en Tabasco, esclava de un cacique. En el ano 1519, Cortes llego a Veracruz, y Malinalli fue parte de un grupo de veinte mujeres regaladas a el. Este es el punto According to Castillo, the author of famous book, The True Story of the Conquest of Mexico, his father was a chief, but died when the girl was young. Then his mother married another chief and gave birth to a child. To which the man obtained the position of power within the family, said his mother had died and Malinalli sent quietly out of town for slavery.
Eventually, Malinalli found in Tabasco, the slave of a chief. In 1519, Cortes arrived in Veracruz, and Malinalli was part of a group of twenty women given away to him. This is the point Cuando Cortes recibio las mujeres, le dio Malinalli a su capitan, Alonzo Hernando Puertocarrero; pero despues, Malinalli se quedaria al lado de Cortes. Fue bautizada y obtuvo el nombre de dona Marina. Como traductora, Malinalli ayudaba a Cortes porque sabia las lenguas maya y nahuatl; al mismo tiempo, aprendia el espanol rapidamente.
Como aconsejadora, avisaba a Cortes en los costumbres de los aztecas. Como amante, Dona Marina dio a luz a un nino que se llamo Martin, el hijo de Cortes. When Cortes received the women gave their captain Malinalli, Alonzo Hernando Puertocarrero, but then would Malinalli near Cortez. She was baptized and received the name of Dona Marina. As a translator, Malinalli Cortes helped because I knew Maya and Nahuatl languages at the same time, learning the Spanish quickly. As advised, warned Cortes in the customs of the Aztecs.
As mistress, Dona Marina gave birth to a boy named Martin, the son of Cortes. Despues de la Conquista de Mexico, Malinalli acompano a Cortes a Hibueras, donde se encontro a su familia y perdono a su madre por lo que hizo. Luego, se caso con Juan Jaramillo en el pueblo de Ostotipec; tuvieron una hija. Dona Marina se murio en el ano 1530, once anos despues de los primeros pasos que tomo Cortes en el Nuevo Mundo. Sin embargo, dona Marina se quedara en la historia de la Conquista sin igual; historicamente.
After the conquest of Mexico, accompanied Cortes Malinalli Hibueras, where he met his family and forgave his mother for what she did. Then, she married Juan Jaramillo in the village of Ostotipec, had a daughter. Dona Marina, died in 1530, eleven years after the first steps taken by Cortes in the New World. However, Dona Marina will stay in the history of the Conquest beaten; historically. Whether she is regarded as the heroine of the Conquest, or as the symbol of the betrayal of her compatriots …she was an exceptional woman, and she and Aguilar understood one another very well». Cheetham, 89-90) «La Malinche has been transformed from a historical figure to a major Mexican and Latin American feminine archetype, a polysemous sign whose signifieds, for all their ambiguity, are generally negative». (Messinger Cyress, 2) «Conquistadors violated Indian women, some of whom remained with the Spanish soldiers, spurning their own men. The most famous of these was La Malinche, the Indian woman who served as Hernan Cortes’s concubine and translator. Her name is synonymous with betrayal of what is Mexican». (Oster, 229) III Aspectos historicos y culturales durante su vida
Durante la vida de La Malinche, ocurrieron muchos eventos significantes; no solo para los europeos, ademas para los aztecas y otras culturas indigenas occidentales. Fue el “descubrimiento” de nuevas tierras por Colon en 1492 que desarrollo la serie de eventos que se llama La Conquista. El rumor del “Nuevo Mundo” causaba mucha curiosidad e intriga entre la gente europea, y por eso, ellos empezaron a explorar el Occidente. Durante esta epoca, la cultura azteca florecia. Tuvo una forma de gobierno autocratico con Moctezuma Xocoyotzin encabezandolo.
La capital, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, era una ciudad enorme, con tianguis, piramides y edificios espectaculos, y una poblacion de casi 300,000 personas. La ciudad fue rodeada por el agua de dos lagos localizados en el valle de Mexico. Moctezuma, el noveno monarca mexica, creia ardorosamente en la profecia del retorno del dios Quetzalcoatl, que deberia haber regresado en una cana, o ce acatl, en la lengua nahuatl. Esta fecha mitica cayo, por casualidad, en el mismo ano que desembarcaron Cortes y sus conquistadores en Veracruz. La Conquista de Mexico empezo en 519, cuando Malintzin tenia mas o menos catorce anos. Espana habia establecido puertos en el Caribe unos anos antes, pero no hubo explorado mucho del interior del continente. Con la llegada de Hernan Cortes a Mexico, la faz del Occidente fue cambiado para siempre. El y sus soldados marcharon rumbo Tenochtitlan, en una campana bajo el proposito de conquistar todo y enriquecerse; llegaron a la ciudad el 8 de noviembre de 1519. Unos eventos destacados de la Conquista son la Matanza del Templo Mayor, la viruela, la muerte de Moctezuma, y la Noche Triste.
La Conquista de Mexico-Tenochtitlan termino dos anos despues en 1521. IV Su importancia en la cultura de Mexico El tema de La Malinche es uno de los mas polemicos de todos. Es cierto que sus acciones tuvieron un impacto profundo en la historia de Mexico. Por la mayor parte, su personificacion lleva un tono negativo. La Malinche es considerada traidora de la cultura indigena, la madre de los mestizos, y una heroina al mismo tiempo; pero su definicion depende en la persona que habla de ella. Hay muchas interpretaciones diferentes que pertenecen a la Malinche.
Historicamente, la Malinche representa la clave de la Conquista; pero hay muchos que consideran la Conquista una violacion enorme. Recientemente, ha habido esfuerzos para rehacer su imagen, pero ha sido arduo porque casi quinientos anos de maldicion son dificiles de borrar. Dona Marina ayudo a Cortes a conquistar Mexico. Sus acciones representan a muchos el gran pecado. Conjuntamente, su nombre es sinonimo de traidor. Un malinchista es una persona que prefiere venderse por lo extranjero. Una persona puede venderse su raiz, su patria o sus morales para ser considerada malinchista.
Ademas, la Malinche dio a luz a Martin Cortes, el hijo de Hernan Cortes. Por esa razon, es considerada la madre de los mestizos aunque hubo otras mujeres violadas durante la Conquista. Con tanto en su contra, seria terriblemente trabajoso cambiar el paradigma. La autora, Sandra Messenger Cypess, ha notado que han sido muchos los autores que quieren cambiar la manera en que la Malinche es personificada. Cambios sociales en la segunda mitad del siglo XX han traido a luz aspectos diferentes de lo que hizo.
No hay otra mujer durante la epoca de la Conquista que se destaque como la Malinche. Por su sabiduria, tomo una posicion fundamental que ninguna otra mujer pudiera haber tomado y hay que reconocerla porque la historia no seria la misma si ella no hubiera participado. English Origins There is little sure information regarding Malinche’s background. Most of what is reported about her early life comes through the reports of Cortes’ «official» biographer (Francisco Lopez de Gomara), and some of Cortes’ contemporary conquistadores, such as Andres de Tapia and (most importantly) Bernal
Diaz del Castillo, whose vibrant chronicles Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva Espana relate much of what is known. His version of her origin is a colorful story that seems far too romantic to be entirely credible, yet there is no evidence to the contrary. According to Diaz, Malinche was the noble first-born child of the lord of Paynala (near present-day Coatzacoalcos, then a «frontier» region between the Aztec Empire and the Maya states of the Yucatan Peninsula).
In her youth, her father died and her mother remarried and bore a son. Now an inconvenient stepchild, the girl was sold or given to Maya slave-traders from Xicalango, an important commercial town further south and east along the coast. Diaz claims Malinche’s family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a recently deceased child of a slave was Malinche. At some point, she was given or sold again, and was taken to Potonchan, where she was ultimately given to the Spaniards. The Conquest of Mexico
Malinche was introduced to the Spanish in April 1519, when she was among twenty slave women given by the Chontal Maya of Potonchan (in the present-day state of Tabasco) to the triumphant Spaniards. Her age at the time is unknown, however assumptions have been made of her being in her twenties, as well as of the likelihood that she was striking in appearance. It is suggestive of her appeal that Cortes singled her out as a gift for Alonzo Hernando Puertocarrero, perhaps the most well-born member of the expedition.
Soon, however, Puertocarrero was on his way to Spain as Cortes’ emissary to Charles V, and Cortes decided she was too valuable or attractive to be left in the care of anyone but himself. According to surviving indigenous and Spanish sources, within several weeks, the young woman had begun acting as interpreter – translating between the Nahuatl language (the lingua franca of central Mexico) and the Chontal Maya language. The Spanish priest Geronimo de Aguilar understood the Mayan language, because he had spent several years in captivity among the Maya peoples in Yucatan following a shipwreck.
Cortes used Malinche and Aguilar to interpret until La Malinche learned Spanish and could be used as the sole interpreter. By the end of the year, when the Spaniards had installed themselves in the Mexican capital Tenochtitlan, it is apparent that the woman, now called «Malintzin» by the Indians, had learned enough Spanish to interpret directly between Cortes and the Aztecs. The Indians, significantly, also call Cortes «Malintzin,» an indication, perhaps, of how closely connected they had become.
According to surviving records, Malinche learned of several plans by natives to destroy the small Spanish army, and she alerted Cortes of the danger and even played along with the natives in order to lead them into traps. Following the fall of Tenochtitlan in late 1521 and the birth of her son Don Martin Cortes in 1522, Malinche disappears from the record until Cortes’ nearly disastrous Honduran expedition of 1524–26 when she is seen serving again as interpreter (suggestive of a knowledge of Maya dialects beyond Chontal and Yucatecan. While in the forests of central Yucatan, she married Juan Jaramillo, a Spanish gentleman, with whom she had a daughter (also named Marina) around 1526 or 1527. Little or nothing more is known about her after this, even the year of her death, 1529, being somewhat in dispute. Some sources give the date 1551. Role of La Malinche in the Conquest of Mexico For the conquistadores, having a reliable translator was important enough, but there is evidence that Malinche’s role and influence were larger still.
Bernal Diaz del Castillo, a soldier who, as an old man, produced the most comprehensive of the eye-witness accounts, the Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva Espana («True Story of the Conquest of New Spain»), speaks repeatedly and reverentially of the «great lady» Dona Marina (always using the honorific, «Dona»). «Without the help of Dona Marina,» he writes, «we would not have understood the language of New Spain and Mexico. » Rodriguez de Ocana, another conquistador, relates Cortes’ assertion that after God, Marina was the main reason for his success.
The evidence from indigenous sources is even more interesting, both in the commentaries about her role, and in her prominence in the drawings made of conquest events. In the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (History of Tlaxcala), for example, not only is Cortes rarely portrayed without Malinche poised by his ear, but she is shown at times on her own, seemingly directing events as an independent authority. If she had been trained for court life, as in Diaz’s account, her loyalty to Cortes may have been dictated by the familiar pattern of marriage among native elite classes.
In the role of primary wife acquired through an alliance, her role would have been to assist her husband achieve his military and diplomatic objectives. Origin of the name «La Malinche» The many uncertainties which surround Malinche’s role in the Spanish conquest begin with her name itself. Her birth name is Malintzin Tenepal. Before the twenty slave girls were distributed among the Spanish captains for their pleasure in «grinding corn», Cortes insisted that they be baptized, and it was here that the woman was given the Spanish name «Marina».
We know that the Nahuas later call her «Malintzin». We do not know whether «Marina» was chosen because of a phonetic resemblance to her actual name, or chosen randomly from among common Spanish names of the time. «Malinche» is almost certainly a Spanish corruption of «Malintzin,» which itself probably results from a Nahua mispronunciation of «Marina» plus the reverential «-tzin» suffix. A possible reading of her name as «Malin-tzin» can be translated as «Noble Prisoner/Captive» – a reasonable possibility, given her noble birth and her initial relationship to the Cortes expedition.
This proposal suggests that the origin language of her name was Nahuatl, and that perhaps «Marina» was a Spanish approximation of «Malin-. » There is a widely-held but unsubstantiated explanation for her name which starts with the Nahua word «Malinalli», a bad-luck daysign whose root meaning has something to do with a kind of grass (Nahua men—but less so women—were often named for their day-signs). If true, Mallinalli could be translated as «One Reed», a reference to the coming of Quetzacoatl, the mythical Armageddon when Aztec civilization was supposed to end due to his divine wrath.
The similarity between «Malinalli» and «Malintzin» has led to the notion that «Malinalli» might have been her original name; there is, however, nothing but the phonetic coincidence to support it. The word malinchismo is used by modern-day Mexicans to identify countrymen who betray their race and country; those who mix their blood and culture with European or other outside influences. This attitude toward her is arguably short-sighted, though understandable.
Many historians believe that La Malinche saved her people: that without someone who was not only a fluent translator but who also advised both sides of the negotiations, the Spanish would have been far more violent and destructive in their conquest. The Aztec empire was destroyed, but the Aztec people, their language, and much of their history and culture weren’t completely destroyed. La Malinche’s figure in contemporary Mexico La Malinche’s image has become a mythical archetype that Latin American artists have represented in various forms of art. Her figure permeates historical, cultural, and social dimensions of Latin American cultures.
In modern times and in several genres, she is compared with the figure of the Virgin Mary, La Llorona (folklore story of the weeping woman) and with the Mexican soldaderas (women who fought beside men during the Mexican Revolution) for their brave actions. Finally, one must understand that La Malinche’s legacy is one of myth mixed with legend, and the opposing opinions of the Mexican people about the woman. Many see her as the founding figure of the Mexican race. Others, however, see her as the traitoress of the race, as this may be seen from her pseudonym La Chingada.