History of english language

SIMPLE PRESENT It expresses an action that happens in the everyday life or that’s an habitual action. Aff: =) + verb + Complement Neg: =) + aux. do or does + not + verb + complement Int: Aux do or does + =) + verb + complement Ex: Omar doesn’t study hard. SIMPLE PAST It expresses a past action that is finished. The form of the past simple is the same in all person. Aff: =) + verb in past tense + complement Neg: =) + didn’t + verb in present + complement Int: did + =) + verb in present + complement Ex: She moved to USA 2 years ago. PRESENT CONTINUOUS This tense describes an activity that’s happening now

It also describes an activity in the nearly future. Aff: =) + verb to be + verb with ing + complement Neg: =) + verb to be + not + verb with ing + complement Int: verb to be + =) + verb with ing + complement Ex: Are you going to San Francisco? PAST CONTINUOUS It is used to express an action that happened “for a period” of time in the past. Aff: =) + verb to be in past

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+ verb with ing + complement Neg: =) + verb to be in past + not + verb with ing + complement Int: verb to be in past + =) + verb with ing + complement Ex: We were watching a movie for 2 hours. WILL It’s used to xpress a prediction or willingness to talk about possible plans before you’ve made a decision we’re not sure or we don’t know yet. Aff: =) + will + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + won’t + verb in present + complement Int: will + =) + verb in present + complement Ex: I won’t play with you GOING TO It’s used to express future time and a prior plan to do something in the future, you always use the verb to be followed by going to Aff: =) + to be + going to + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + verb to be + not + going to + verb in present + complement Int: verb to be + =) + going to + verb in present + complement

I’m not going to stay here for a long time. HAVE / HAVE GOT Have and have got are both used for possession. Have got refers to the present and to all time, even though it looks like the present perfect. Have is used for many actions and experiences. Aff: =) + have +complement / =) + have got + complement Neg: =) + don’t have + complement / =) + haven’t got + complement Int =) do + =) + have + complement / have + =) + got + complement Do you have a cell phone? / have you got a car? HAVE TO / DON’T HAVE TO «Have to» is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation. Do not have to» suggests that someone is not required to do something. Aff: =) + have to + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + don’t have to + verb in present + complement Int: have + =) + to + verb in present + complement Ex: they have to leave early / you don’t have to eat that. PASSIVE PRESENT In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized.

You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action. Thing receiving action + be + past participle of verb (+ by + thing doing action;THIS IS OPTIONAL) Simple present: Once a week, Tom cleans the house Passive present: Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom SHOULD «Should» is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express expectation. Aff: =) + should + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + should + not + verb in present + complement Int: should + =) verb in present + complement Ex: you should go to have a breakfast MUST «Must» is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form «have to. » «Must not» can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe. Aff: =) + must + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + must + not + verb in present + complement Ex: You must not swim in that river REMEMBER: «Must not» vs. «Do not have to» «Must not» suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. Do not have to» suggests that someone is not required to do something. Examples: * You must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed. * You don’t have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary. BE ALLOWED TO / CAN Can and be allowed to expresses permission, can is more informal and usually spoken. Aff: =) + tobe + allowed to + verb in present + complement Neg: =) + to be + not + allowed to + verb in present + complement Int: verb to be + =) + allowed to + verb in present + complement Ex: Are you allowed to park here?