Control de un motor
Control de un motor gy keuuas ACKa6pR 02, 2010 18 pagos Motor control A reference guide wvwv. st. com Contents Introduction Product family highlights Universal motor Brush DC motor Single-phase induction motor Three-phase induction motor Three-phase brushless DC motor Stepper motor Switched reluctance motor Auxiliary blocks 14161820 PACE 1 or18 to View nut*ge High efficiency, redu d no. market. And all at op facing the many indu edl ime, rapid time to hallenge currently motors.
Today, the demand for electronic motor control is increasing rapidly, not only in the automotive and computer peripherals markets, but also n industrial applications and home appliances such as heating and ventilation systems, power tools, vacuum cleaners and white goods. All these mass-market applications need cost-effective solutions without compromising reliability. STMicroelectronics was among the first to recognize this trend and today offers a full range of components for optimizing motor control systems.
Whatever motor technology you use, this reference guide Will help you to make the right choice of components. Single-chip versus multi-chip solution requirements for controlling electric motors in various applications. The ST6 family for example, targets cost-sensitive universal and single-phase induction motor applications, where Speed control can be enhanced uslng the ST7 MCI_J. The ST7 family,
The ST9’s 8/1 6-bit register file architecture enables efficient 4 scalar control of three-phase induction motors, while the 16-bit STIO allows vector control. ST52 8-bit products also include a dedicated fuzzy logic core. All families and products are supported by a comprehensive range f emulators, development kits, programmers and demonstration boards, plus an integrated development environment, C compilers, and graphical design aids. FLASH, OTP, EPROM and ROM versions are available.
ST – committed to motor control Smart Power 1C building blocks Device incorporating all necessary logic and power circuits for driving the motor Input power Driver Controller Power stage Motor Driving section Switch array Power circuit feeding motor including level shifters and protection circuits Logic signals Sensor Logic generates proper command pattern for ower stage Linear switch mode Voltage and current electronic components level shifters (MOSFETS, BITS, IGBTS) (gate drivers) Power discretes ST offers a broad selection of products for power discretes: MOSFET and IGBT transistors, thyristors, triacs and AC swtches, fast rectifiers and protection devices ranging from 1 to 50A and 30 to 1,600V. Perfectly suited to medium power motor drive applications, ST is constantly enhancing the performance of its power discretes by upgrad apabilities and product 8 constantly enhancing the performance of its power discretes by upgradlng process capabilities and product families.
S innovations include: breaking MOSFET performance barriers using MDmeshr’* highvoltage technology and STripFET Iow-voltage technology to Iower Rds(on) without sacrificing switching performance embedding control features into switch with VI Powern’ technology for Iow-voltage motors adding over-voltage protection and a separating gate circult with the ACSW swltch, designed around 500V and 800V ASDW technology enhancing the IGBT family with the new strip layout PowerMesh geometry, and the TurboswitchW diodes family with the new 300V and 600V STTH series Smart power and dedicated ICs With STs proprietary BCD family of processes, which combine bipolar, CMOS and DMOS structures on the same substrate, it is possible to achieve high levels of integration, includng monolithic 600V gate drivers for mans-fed motor drive applications. For applications such as automotive and PC peripherals, ST has developed a broad range of complete single-chip motor drivers incorporating control, drivers and power switches. Using a process as fine as 0. 5mm, typical of ST’s newest BCD6 process, even relatively complex digital circuits such as microcontrollers, can be integrated into Po on-volatile memories advanced Smart Power voltage. Typical application parameters Voltage 100 to 24C]Vac (or corresponding rectified voltage) Motor power 100 to 1,600W Speed range 0 to 20,000 RPM Features High start-up and Iow Speed torque capability AC universal motor drive The motor is connected to the mains through an AC switch. The AC voltage varies across the motor in phase control mode by means of a microcontroller which sets the triac triggering time. Main applications Vacuum cleaners Washing machines Power tools Food processors IJmot (motor vo tage) Current sensing Microcontroller AC switch
Imot (motor current) DC universal motor drive 18 A thvristor supplies the m e positive mains half Product highlights Microcontrollers A Iow-cost 8-bit microcontroller with proven EMC behaviour and Iow power consumption is ideal for this application. ST7, ST6 and ST52 family MCI_Js have an on-chip clamping diode for zero crossing detection through a resistor, a high current sinking capability for direct triac drive and PWM generation. In addition, they Offer multiple, external interrupts and analog inputs, fully configurable 1/Os and a range oftimers for accurate control and Speed measurement. The IGBT is the best 600V rated device for the PWM brush DC motor drive.
PowerMESHW IGBTs combine Iow Vce(sat) with very short turn-off times, and drastically reduce both turn-on and turn-off switching losses. Available at 300V and 600V, Turboswltchw diodes feature ultra-fast recovery while maintaining a Iow drop voltage. They significantly cut losses in both the diode and transistor at turn on. The thyristor (or SCR) delivers both rectification and motor voltage adjustment. A sensitive device (Igt< 200pA) simplifies the gate drive and reduces overall control circuit dissipation. Triac and ACST switches are suited to this type of drive, offering h'gh surge current and Iow conduction loss. ST's SnubberIessTM, logic level triacs require a Iow gate-triggering current (10mA and 35mA) and run safely wlthout requiring a turn-off aid snubber.
The new ACST switches are designed with intrinsic over-voltage robustness and safely suppress the mains voltage surges described in IEC61000-4-5. Power transistors Fast rectifiers Thyristors AC switches 7 The stator circuit comprises a permanent magnet structure (PMDC motor) or a winding. If the stator includes a winding, he latter can be connected to the rotor winding in series or parallel, or can be driven separately. Brush DC motors can be driven in voltage mode, since motor Speed is proportional to supply voltage when the load is constant. However, to control motor torque, a current control loop is usually added in higher performance systems. For bi-directional operation, the rotor current must be inverted, taking into account the stator magnetic field. oltage 6 to 320Vdc Motor power up to 20,OOOW Speed range O to 30,000 RPM Consumer audio/video Shavers Toys Cordless tools Automotive body functions Traction Servomechanisms Factory automation Machine tools Single-switch choppers For the unidirectional operation of a PMDC motor, only one power switch is needed. In case of PWM control, a freewheeling diode is connected across the motor. Power supply Mosfet driver Mosfet Diode M Smart Power 1C 60F 18 are more compact and basic, whereas microcontrollers are more flexible and allow complex control algorithms to be implemented. VIPower devices are suitable for Iow-voltage brush DC motors in automotive or Industrial applications.
Low-side and high-side drivers are available, including a new single-package full bridge river. With unrivalled Iow Rds(on), STripFET MOSFETs are ideal for higher power applications such as cordless tools. Monolithic motor drivers can be used conveniently in applications where the input voltage does not exceed a few dozen volts and the current feeding the motor windings is limited to a few amps. These devices may include just the power stage or the control section. ST has developed several types of Power 1C, suited to different application requirements, working in linear or switch mode. Monolithic full-bridge and half-bridge gate drivers are available nd include protection, dead time and supply circuits.
Smart Power ICs Gate drivers > Analog contoller or Microcontroller The single-phase inductio rushless motor designed either with a single stator aded pole» coil, ortwo means of two AC switches which connect the phase-shift capacitor in series with either of the two stator windlngs. Washing machines Window and door openers Control supply AC switch Microcontroller Direct-reverse Speed induction motor drive Multi-winding on/off induction motor drive Here the stator coil is divided into 3 or 4 pairs of windings. The Speed is adjusted stepwise by connecting different combinations of these windings to the mains through AC switches in arder to change the number of active stator poles and the base speed. Fans in home appliances changes linearly to control the Speed according to torque.
Heatin% ventilation and air conditioning Umot Industrial blowers and compressors t Duty cycle Imot t Microcontroller Reference Duty cycle increase Current sensing PWM modulation High-frequency controlled induction motor drive Microcontrollers An 8-bit Iow-cost microcontroller with proven application. ST7, ST6 and ST52 family MCUs have an on-chip clamping diode for zero crossing detection through a resistor, and generation. In addition they Offer multiple, external interrupts and analog inputs, and fully configurable 1/Os. The IGBT is the best 600V rated device for PWM induction motor drives. The PowerMESHTM IGBTs combine Iow Vce(sat) with very short turn-off times and drastica itching losses.
With high commutation performanc sw tnacs, ACSW and ACST motor is supplied with three alternating voltages which produce a rotating stator field while Speed varies with the field frequency. The rotor follows this field with a lag called the slip. Voltage 100 to 240Vac Motor power 50 to 2,200W Speed range O to 20,000 RPM Features R0busÇ silent and reliable Three-phase induction motor in scalar control mode Scalar control is typically achieved by controlling the voltage- to-frequency ratio in an open or closed loop. Optimized motor efficiency can be achieved by implementing slip regulation. Washing machines Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Blowers, fans and pumps Industrial control IGBT/diode Rectifier bridge M Gate driver Motor current A BC Gate Gate driver driver T Speed feedback