Homogeneous preferences exist when all consumers have roughly the same preferences and another extreme, consumers diffused preferences vary greatly in their preferences. And finally clustered preferences result when natural market segments emerge from groups of consumers with shared preferences. Niche marketing. A niche is a more defined customer group seeking a distinctive mix of benefits. The costumer have a distinct set of needs, they will pay a premium to the firm that best satisfies, the niche is fairly small but has size, profit, and growth potential and is unlikely to attract many other competitors and the
As marketing, efficiently increases, niches that were seemingly too small may become more profitable. The low cost of setting up shop on the internet has led to many small business start-ups aimed at niches. Local marketing. Target marketing is leading to marketing programs tailored to the needs and wants of local customer groups in trading areas, neighbourhoods, even individual stores. The local marketing reflects a growing trend called grassroots marketing. A brand’s overall image might be diluted if the product and message are different in different localities. Individual marketing. The ultimate level of segmentation leads to “segments of one”, today the costumer are tanking more individual intuitive in determining what and how to buy.
They log onto the internet; look up information and evaluations of product or service offers: conduct dialogue with supplies, users and product critics and many cases, design the product they want. The customization is certainly not for every company, it maybe very difficult to implement for complex products such automobiles, also can raise the cost of goods by more than the costumer is willing to pay, come costumers don’t know what they want until they see actual products. The product maybe be hard to repair and have little sales value, in spite of this, customization has worked well for some products. Bases for segmenting consumer markets. We use 2 broad groups of variables to segment consumer markets; some searches try to define segments by looking at descriptive characteristics : Geographic Demographic Psychographic
Other researchers try to define segments by looking at behavioural considerations, such as consumer responses to benefits, use occasions, or brands. Geographic segmentation. Calls for dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, counties, cities or neighbourhoods. More and more, regional marketing means marketing right down to a specific zip code. Mane companies use mappings software to show the geographic locations of their customer. The software may show a retailer the most of this costumer are within only a – 10 mile areas, the retailer can rely on costumer cloning, assuming the best prospects live where the costumers from. The geographic segmentation is the ivide the market into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, countries and cities. This is so that the company can operate in one or a few areas, or operate in all. Demographic Segmentation The demographic segmentation is when we divide the market into groups on the basis of variables such as age, family size, family life cycle, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation, nationality, and social class. In the demographic segment there are two variables reasons, these reasons are: The first reason demographic variables are so popular with markets is that they are often associated with consumers needs and wants. The second reason is that they are easy to measure.
Even when we describe the target market in no demographic terms, we may need the link back to demographic characteristics in order to estimate the size of the market and the media we should use to reach it efficiently. Brand life cycle stage The brand life cycle stage is when consumer wants and abilities changes with age. Nevertheless, age and life cycle can be tricky variables. In some case, the target market for products may be the psychologically young. For example, Honda tried to target 21 years olds with its boxy elements, which company officials described as a “dorm room on wheels”. So many baby boomers were attracted the car’s ads depicting sexy college kinds partying near the car at a beach , however, that the average age of buyers turned out to be 42. Life stage
People in the same time part of the life cycle may differ in their life stage. Life stage defines a person’s major concern, such as going through a divorce, going into a second marriage, talking care of an older parent, deciding to cohabit with another person, and deciding to buy a new home, and so on. These life stages present opportunities for marketers who can help people cope with their major concerns. Gender The gender are men and woman have different attitudes an behave differently, based partly on genetic makeup and partly on socialization. For example, women tend to be more self-expensive and goal directed; women tend to take in more of the data in their mmediate environment; men tend to focus on the part of the environment that helps them achieve a goal. And according to some studies, women in the USA and UK control or influence over 80% of consumer goods and services, make 75% of the decisions about buying new homes, and purchase 60% of new cars outright. Income Income segmentation is a long-standing practice in such categories as automobiles, clothing, cosmetics, financial services, and travel. However, income does not always predicts the best customers for a given products. Generation The generation is profoundly influenced by the times in which it grows up the music, movies, politics and defining events of that period.
Demographers call these generational groups cohorts. Members share the same major cultural, political and economic experiences and have similar outlooks and values. Social Class Social class has a strong influence on preferences in cars, clothing, home furnishings, leisure activities, reading habits, and many companies design products and services for specific social class. The tastes of social classes changes with the years. VOCABULARY PALABRA | TRADUCCION | 1. RICHER | RICOS | 2. RATHER | MAS BIEN | 3. DISCLOSE | REVELAR | 4. NARROWLY | RESTRINGIDO | 5. PROFIT | SIN FIN DE LUCRO | 6. ACCOUNT | CUENTA | 7. GREETING | SALUDO | 8. TAILORED | A LA MEDIDA | 9. RETAIL | MINORISTA | 10.
SUPPLIERS | PROVEEDORES | 11. MANY | PESE | 12. CUSTOMIZATION | PERSONALIZACION | 13. RESEARCHES | INVESTIGADORES | 14. RESPONSES | RESPUESTAS | 15. BRAND | MARCAS | 16. GEOGRAPHICAL | GEOGRAFICOS | 17. MAPPING | MAPAS | 18. NEIGHBORHOODS | BARRIOS | 19. ETHNICALLY | ETNICAMENTE | 20. OWNING | POSEEN | 21. TYPIFY | TIPIFICAN | 22. THRIVING | PROSPERA | 23. COUPLES | PAREJAS | 24. DEEPLY | PROFUNDAMENTE | 25. TARGET | OBJETIVO | 26. INCREASING | CADA VEZ MAYOR | 27. ABILITIES | HABILIDADES | 28. COHABIT | CONVIVEN | 29. PARTLY | EN PARTE | 30. INCOME | LA RENTA | 31. OUTLOOKS | PERSPECTIVAS | 32. EXPERIENCES | EXPERIENCIAS | 33. APPROACHES | ENFOQUES |