Calentamiento global

GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. “The effects of global warming and climate change are of concern both for the environment and human life. ” ( Re, Munich, 2003, Wikipedia). Some impacts from increasing temperatures are already happening. Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles.

This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice, It is expected that the increase in global temperatures disrupt ecosystems and cause loss of species diversity “if sea ice disappears, the polar bears will as well. ” (Obard, Martyn, 1997,National Geographic). Other expected effects include water scarcity in some regions and increased precipitation in others, changes in mountain snowpack, and some adverse health, High temperature also causes the concentration of ozone in the lower atmosphere. Ozone is a harmful pollutant and causes respiratory problems Ozone is also known to damage lung tissues and therefore cause more complications for people with asthma” (. Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 2007). “These are some of the health effects of Global Warming. Effects from warmer temperatures. Social and economic effects of global warming may be

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exacerbated by growing population densities in affected areas. Temperate regions are projected to experience some benefits, such as fewer cold-related deaths. (McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S (2006)). Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world. » Increasing temperature is likely to lead to increasing precipitation but the effects on storms are less clear. Extratropical storms partly depend on the temperature gradient, which is predicted to weaken in the northern hemisphere as the polar region warms more than the rest of the hemisphere. In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. «In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, . Once they vanish; water supplies in those regions will be in peril. «(Martinez, Manuel, 2007, Hypatia). Scientists have found evidence that increased evaporation could result in more extreme weather as global warming progresses. The IPCC Third Annual Report says: «… global average water vapor concentration and precipitation are projected to increase during the 21st century.

By the second half of the 21st century, it is likely that precipitation will have increased over northern mid- to high latitudes and Antarctica in winter. At low latitudes there are both regional increases and decreases over land areas. “Larger year to year variations in precipitation are very likely over most areas where an increase in mean precipitation is projected” (. C. A. Johnson (2001), Wikipedia). The role of the oceans in global warming is a complex one.

The oceans serve as a sink for carbon dioxide, taking up much that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased levels of CO2 have led to ocean acidification. Furthermore, as the temperature of the oceans increases, they become less able to absorb excess CO2. Global warming is projected to have a number of effects on the oceans. Ongoing effects include rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and warming of the ocean surface, leading to increased temperature stratification. Other possible effects include large-scale changes in ocean circulation. Additional anticipated effects include sea level rise of 0. 18 to 0. 59 meters (0. 59 to 1. 9 ft) (Trenberth, Kevin, (2007). «Chapter 3: Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change). Reductions in the ozone layer, changes in agriculture yields, changes in the range of climate-dependent disease vectors, which has been linked to increases in the prevalence of malaria and dengue fever, and ocean oxygen depletion. The number of category 4 and 5 storms has greatly increased over the past 35 years, along with ocean temperature. Warming may have lead to the increased drought frequency that the West has experienced over the last 30 years. Global Warming also effects the ecosystems. The effects of Global Warming have already been seen in birds. Other effects of global warming, like a decreased snow level, increased temperature and other weather changes will have a effect not only on humans but also entire ecosystems. These ecosystems will change and cause many traditional inhabitants to leave their inhabitants. This may cause extinction of species.

Another Global Warming consequence is the decline of the ecosystem’s productivity. Decline of glaciers, known as glacier retreat is another Global Warming consequence. Decline of glaciers directly results in flash floods, landslides and glacial lake overflow. | | Re, Munich, “ Wikipedia” James, Oliver. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Effects_of_global_warming. ) Obard, Martyn. “National Geographic”, IPCC, http://environment. ationalgeographic. com/environment/global-warming/gw-effects. html. ) .ROSENTHAL, ELISABETH. “Climate Change”. The New York Times. New York edition. November 17, 2007. A1 McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S (2006). «Climate change and human health: present and future risks». Lancet 367 (9513): 859–69 Martinez, Manuel, “Global Warming”. Hypatia, Editorial, Abril: 6-7. Trenberth, Kevin, (2007). «Chapter 3: Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change» (PDF). IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University, New York, NY, USA.